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LTAD - a critique
Demands of the game
Profile of players
Functional screening
Resistance training
Speed and agility training
Integrated game conditioning

Locomotion metrics

Metrics and measurements

Metrics here can be described as measurements derived from analysis systems such as GPS and video capture. As with the 15-a-side game, the following locomotion metrics are frequently used to describe the sevens game (Cunniffe et al 2009, Higham et al 2012, Suarez-Arrones et al 2014):

  • Total distance covered (metres per game - m)
  • Relative distance covered (metres per minute – m/min)
  • Speed thresholds (expresses as kilometers per hour - km/hr):
  1. Standing-walking (0 – 6.0 km/hr)
  2. Jogging (6.1 – 12.0 km/hr)
  3. Cruising (12.1 – 14.0 km/hr)
  4. Striding (14.1 – 18.0 km/hr)
  5. High-intensity activity (18.1 to 20km/hr)
  6. Sprinting (sprints > 20.1 km/hr)

Exercise intensity is expressed using heart rate and the following heart rate categories of exertion are typically used:

  • Zone 1 (<60% HRmax)
  • Zone 2 (61-70% HRmax)
  • Zone 3 (71-80% HRmax)
  • Zone 4 (81-90% HRmax)
  • Zone 5 (91-95% HRmax)
  • Zone 6 (>96% HRmax)

Work-to-rest ratio is an important metric to consider. A work-to-rest ratio of 1:0.5 means that for every 1 minute of work, the player rested for 0.5 minutes.

The use of GPS with accelerometry also allows us to quantify other metrics such as player physical collision data.

Figure 2. Contact and collision events in the game may be quantified using accelerometry technology.

Typically, the intensity and number of collisions through tackle and other contact events are classified using gravitational or ‘G’ force. The intensity of collisions has been previously graded using GPS accelerometry technology in a number of studies and is described in Table 1.

‘G’ force
Contact type

7 – 8

Heavy impact (tackle)

8 – 10

Very heavy impact (scrum engagement, tackle)


Severe impact, tackle or collision

Table 1. Contact and collision force classified according to ‘G’ force (from Cunniffe et al 2009, McLelland & Lovell 2012, Suarez-Arrones et al 2014).